Fish

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Fish

Fish is consumed as a food by many species, including humans. It has been an important source of protein for humans throughout recorded history.
Feeding Programs/Management

The fish suitable for Aquaculture in Zambia are the Tilapia and Catfish species.

The two main species of Tilapia farmed are the Nile Tilapia and the Mozambique Tilapia.
They are both mouthbrooding species where the female fish will keep egg, larvae and fry protected inside her mouth until the fry is large enough to be released.
Zambia will rely on aquaculture more in the future; this is due to the river and lake systems being heavily over fished.

For further information please click on the area of interest below:

Fish Production Systems

Recommendations for Fish Feeding

Housing

Earthen ponds

Earthen ponds are used a lot in Zambia. Depending on the quality of the soil you may need to line them. A good pond will show the following characteristics:

• A well designed water supply but also easy drainage. This means a slight slope (0,5 %) of the pond floor from the water inlet to the drainage point.

• Water inlet and outlet will be at opposite ends in order to ease water exchange within the pond.

• Good impermeability of the pond as a whole and strength/integrity of the pond’s walls and edges.

• Access and possibility to work around the pond which must be accessible to vehicles (tractors/trucks & trailers etc.).

• Size of ponds must be adapted to the species but also be easy to manage. If the width exceeds 50 metres, it becomes difficult to pull nets for harvest (e.g. 3 to 4 men on each side are necessary to pull a 60 m. net) rendering the ponds impractical.

Concrete ponds

Concrete ponds are used for intensive fish farming; concrete walls/banks eliminate erosion due to currents caused by mechanical aeration, waves generated by the wind and fish activity (notably nesting behaviour). This type of pond is more expensive to build and, therefore, should be made profitable by a higher production per volume utilised. Conversely, the firmer walling reduces maintenance and re-building costs that will be necessary after a few years of operation.

This type of pond is smaller than earthen ponds and should not exceed 1,000 m2 surface area. The bottom can also be in concrete but for reasons of construction costs, only if the pond size does not exceed 200 m2. Brick or stone walls must have strong foundations and, if they are built with bricks or blocks, they must be plastered, in order to avoid the effects of erosion.

Floating cages

There are many possibilities for obtaining floating cages for growing fish, from locally-made ones (usually cheaper but more fragile) to high technology cages (more expensive and more robust) which are usually used in exposed sites.

While the optimal size for a tilapia cage is unknown, one should consider that the bigger the cage, the cheaper it costs in both material and equipment elements. A cage of a dimension of 100 m2 is a good compromise.

Fish Tanks
It is easier to meticulously control the environment in a tank than in a pond, e.g. when it comes to water temperature, pH-level and oxygen content.

In order to strictly control the environment in the tank, you have to use really efficient pumps and aeration equipment which can be costly to purchase and use. Recirculation systems also require a substantial investment and must be properly managed.
Feeding and harvesting is typically less labour intensive in tanks than in ponds.
All sorts of equipment that needs electricity will stop working during power cuts and surges and this can lead to mass deaths if you do not have a back-up system.

Costing Model

Coming soon